Technical Results
AHRI Public Sector Program Project Reports

  • The Impact of Duct Design on Life Cycle Costs of Central Residential Heating and Air-conditioning Systems, B. Stephens (AHRI-8002)
  • Universal Vent Test Report, P. Glanville (AHRI-8010)
  • Joining Techniques Assessment, D. Clodic, Y. Yu (AHRTI-9006)
  • ASHRAE SPC 177P Fractionation Apparatus Evaluation, A. Kusmierz (AHRTI-9005)
  • Low Global Warming Potential (GWP) Refrigerants, Phase II: Defining the Configurations of Residential Air-Conditioning and Heat Pump Systems Using Hydrocarbons, Ammonia, Carbon Dioxide, and HFO-1234yf as Refrigerants and Meeting Previously Defined Safety Requirements, W. Goetzler, D. Westphalen, and J. Burgos (AHRI-8006
  • Novel Materials for Heat Exchangers, Phase II Report, A. M. Jacobi, K. Nawaz, and J. Bock, 2013 (AHRTI-06030-02)
  • Risk Assessment of Residential Heat Pump Systems Using 2L Flammable Refrigerants, T. A. Lewandowski, 2012 (AHRI-8004)
  • Void Fraction Measurement and Modeling for Condensing Refrigerant Flows in Small Diameter Tubes, T. A. Shedd, 2012 (AHRTI-20110-01)
  • Material Compatibility & Lubricants Research for Low GWP Refrigerants – Phase I: Thermal and Chemical Stability of Low GWP Refrigerants with Lubricants, N. D. Rohatgi, R. W. Clark, D. R. Hurst, 2012 (AHRTI-9004-01)
  • Performance Standards for Walk-in Refrigerator and Freezer Systems, B. Becker, B. Fricke, and B. Sartin, 2012 (AHRTI-9002-01)
  • Technical Feasibility Study Carbon Monoxide Sensing Safety Systems for Appliances, D. Kalensky, and  F. Johnson, 2011 (AHRI-8001)
  • Life Cycle Climate Performance Model for Residential Heat Pump Systems, M. Zhang, J. Muehlbauer, V. Aute, and R. Radermacher, 2011 (AHRTI-9003-01, AHRTI LCCP Calculation Tool, AHRTI LCCP HP 1.0 Installation Instruction, AHRTI LCCP HP 1.0 User Guide)
  • Thermal Stability and Chemical Compatibility of R-22 Replacement Refrigerants, Cavestri, El-Shazly, and Seeger-Clevenger, 2010 (AHRI-8003)
  • Novel Materials for Heat Exchangers, Phase I Report, Jacobi, Han, Park, Sommers, T’Joen, and Wang, 2008. (ARTI-06030-01)
  • Particle Image Velocimetry Measurements and CFD-Based Predictions of Air Distribution at Evaporator Inlet and Outlet, Yashar and Domanski, 2009. (ARTI-07010-01)
  • Review of Regulations and Standards for the Use of Refrigerants with GWP Values Less than 20 in HVAC&R Applications, Goetzler, Burgos, Hiraiwa, and Sutherland, 2010. (ARTI-09001-01)
  • Gas Interchangeability Testing Report, Gas Consultants, Inc., 2009. (Final Report)
  • Electro-Osmosis for Dehumidification, Gerlach, 2008. (ARTI-10090-02)
  • Recovery of Throttling Losses by a Two-Phase Ejector in a Vapor Compression Cycle, Liu and Groll, 2008. (ARTI-10110-01)
  • Thermoelectric Technology Assessment, Yang, 2007. (ARTI-10120-01— currently in development)
  • Near-Critical/Supercritical Heat Transfer Measurements of R-410A in Small Diameter Tube, Garimella, 2008. (ARTI-20120-01)
  • Electrostatic Forces and Water Sprays for Temperature, Humidity, and Indoor Air Quality Control, Hensley and Bryan, 2008. (ARTI Report No. 20140-01)
  • Whole House Ventilation System Options – Phase 1 Simulation Study, Lstiburek, Pettit, and Rudd, 2007. (ARTI-30090-01)
  • Comparison of Vertical Display Cases: Energy Efficiency and Productivity of Glass Doors vs. Open Display Cases, Fricke and Becker, 199. (ASHRAE-1402-RP— currently in development)
  • Energy and Performance of Secondary Coolant Low-temperature Refrigeration Systems (ASHRAE-1484— currently in development)


21CR Program Reports

Electronic copies of 21CR project reports are available upon request from AHRI Director of Research.

Strategic Reports

  • Strategic Planning for the HVACR Industry, Report I – Industry Opportunities, J. M. Tooman, Inc., 2001
  • Strategic Planning for the HVACR Industry, Report II – Research Recommendations, J. M. Tooman, Inc., 2001


Emerging Technologies Project Reports

  • The Efficiency Limits of Water Vapor Compressors Suitable for Air-Conditioning Applications, Wright, Yoshinaka, Le Drew, and D'Orsi, 2000. (ARTI-21CR/605-10010-01)
  • Microchannel Heat Exchangers with Carbon Dioxide, Zhao, Ohadi, and Radermacher, 2001. (ARTI-21CR/605-10020-01)
  • Evaluation of the Performance Potential of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) as a Refrigerant in Air-to-Air Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps: System Modeling and Analysis, Ortiz, Li and Groll, 2003. (ARTI-21CR/610-10030-01)
  • Evaluating the Performance of Thermoacoustic Cooling, Braun, Mongeau, Minner, Alexander, and Paek, 2001. (ARTI-21CR/610-10040-01)
  • Fundamental Understanding of Heat and Mass Transfer in Ammonia-Water Absorber, Garimella, 2006. (ARTI-21CR/612-10050-01 Interim Report – Phase 1)
  • Fundamental Understanding of Heat and Mass Transfer in Ammonia-Water Absorber - Phase 2, Garimella, 2007. (ARTI-21CR/612-10050-02 Final Report - Phase 2)
  • Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Compressor-Expander Analysis, Huff and Radermacher, 2003. (ARTI-21CR/611-10060-01)
  • Measurement of Performance of Carbon Dioxide Compressors, Hubacher and Groll, 2002. (ARTI-21CR/611-10070-01)
  • Model and Evaluation Tools for Assessing Magnetocaloric Effect for Space Conditioning and Refrigeration Applications, Engelbrecht, Nellis, and Klein, 2005. (ARTI-21CR-612-10075-01)
  • Use of Water Vapor as a Refrigerant: Part II; Cycle Modifications and System Impacts on Commercial Feasibility, Lachner Jr., Nellis, and Reindl, 2004. (ARTI-21CR/611-10080-01)


HVAC&R Energy Efficiency Project Reports

  • Evaluating the Ability of Unitary Equipment to Maintain Adequate Space Humidity Levels, Brandemuehl and Katejanekarn, 2001. (ARTI-21CR/605-20010-01)
  • Evaluating the Ability of Unitary Equipment to Maintain Adequate Space Humidity Levels - Phase II, Witte and Henninger, 2006. (ARTI-21CR/605-20011-01) (ARTI-21CR/605-20011-01A Appendices)
  • An Assessment of the State-of-the-Art and Potential Design Improvements, for Flat-tube Heat Exchangers in Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Applications - Phase I, Jacobi, Park, Tafti, and Zhang, 2001. (ARTI-21CR/605-20020-01)
  • Flat-Tube Heat Exchangers in Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Applications - Phase II, Jacobi, Park, Zhong, Michna, and Xia, 2005.(ARTI-21CR/611-20021-01)
  • Application of High-Temperature Mold Materials to Die Cast Copper Motor Rotor for Improved Efficiency
  • Economical Copper Rotor Production, Peters, Cowie, Brush, Jr., and Midson, 2003. (ARTI-21CR/605-20030-01)
  • Motor Test Results, Copper vs. Aluminum, Brush, Jr., Cowie, Peters, and Van Son, 2003. (ARTI-21CR/605-20030-02)
  • Refrigerant Evaporation Characteristics Inside Flat Passages, Thome and Quiben, 2005. (ARTI-21CR/605-20040-01)
  • Potential Benefits of Smart Refrigerant Distributors, Payne and Domanski, 2003. (ARTI-21CR/610-20050-01)
  • High Condensing Temperature Heat Transfer Performance of Low Critical Temperature Refrigerants, Garimella, 2006. (ARTI-21CR/610-20060-01)
  • Variable Primary Flow Chilled Water Systems: Potential Benefits and Application Issues, Bahnfleth and Peyer, 2004. (ARTI-21CR/611-20070-01)
  • Critical Literature Review on Lubricant Influence in Refrigerant Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop, Shen and Groll, 2003. (ARTI-21CR/611-20080-01)
  • Comparison of the Total Energy Consumption of Series vs. Parallel Fan Powered VAV Terminal Units (1292-RP)
  • Phase I Development of Models for Series and Parallel Fan Variable Air Volume Terminal Units, Furr, Jr., O'Neal, Davis, Bryant; and Cramlet, 2007. (ARTI-21CR/612-20090-01, Phase 1 Report)
  • Phase 2 Comparison of the Total Energy Consumption of Series versus Parallel Fan Powered VAV Terminal Units, Davis; Bryant, O'Neal, Hervey; and Cramlet, 2007. (ARTI-21CR/612-20090-02 Phase 2 Report)


System Integration Project Reports

  • State-of-the-Art Review, Whole Building, Building Envelope, HVAC Component and System Simulation and Design Tools, Jacobs and Henderson, 2002 (ARTI-21CR/605-30010/30020-01)
  • Energy Savings Potential of Flexible and Adaptive HVAC Distribution Systems for Office Buildings - Phase I, Loftness, Brahme, Mondazzi, Vineyard, and MacDonald, 2002 (ARTI-21CR/605-30030-01)
  • Methods for Automated and Continuous Commissioning of Building Systems Portland Energy Conservation, Inc. and Battelle Northwest Division, 2003 (ARTI-21CR/610-30040-01)
  • Automated Integration of Real-Time Information into Building Management Systems, Stunder, Sebastian, Chube, and Koontz, 2003. (ARTI-21CR/611-30050-01)
  • System Optimization of Residential Ventilation, Space Conditioning and Thermal Distribution, Proctor and Pira, 2005. (ARTI-21CR/611-30060-01)
Indoor Environmental Quality Focus Area
  • Defining the Effectiveness of UV Lamps Installed in Circulating Air Ductwork
  • VanOsdell and Foarde, 2002. (ARTI-21CR/610-40030-01)
  • Investigation of Building Exhaust Air Re-Entrainment Into Outdoor Air Intakes of Packaged Outdoor HVAC Equipment - Phase I, Stickford, Saunders, Hesse, Osborne, and Talbert, 2002. (ARTI-21CR/610-40040-01)
  • Investigation of Building Exhaust Air Re-Entrainment Into Outdoor Air Intakes of Packaged Outdoor HVAC Equipment - Phase II, Osborne, Aume, Goshe, Ricci, and Talbert, 2005. (ARTI-21CR/612-40041-01)
  • The Role of Filtration in Maintaining Clean Heat Exchanger Coils, Yang, Braun, and Groll, 2004. (ARTI-21CR/611-40050-01)
  • Simulating the Performance of Natural and Hybrid Ventilation Systems in U.S. Office Buildings, Emmerich and Crum, 2005. (ARTI-21CR/611-40076-01)
  • Portable Mold Detectors - Operating Requirements, Harriman, 2004
  • (ARTI-21CR/612-40080-01)
  • Portable Mold Detectors - Survey of Potential Technologies, Harriman, 2005
  • (ARTI-21CR/612-40080-02)
  • Portable Mold Detectors - Technical Feasibility and Operational Requirements, De Jesús, Balasubramanian, Bayer, Greneker, Harriman, Hendry, Rowland, Showman, Sylvester, and Trostel, 2006. (ARTI-21CR/612-40080-03)


Working Fluids Project Reports

  • Properties and Cycle Performance of Refrigerant Blends Operating Near and Above the Refrigerant Critical Point
  • Task 1- Refrigerant Properties, McLinden, Laesecke, Lemmon, Magee, and Perkins, 2002. (ARTI-21CR/605-50010-01-Pt1)
  • Task 2: Air Conditioner System Study, Domanski andPayne, 2002. (ARTI-21CR/605-50010-01-Pt2)
  • Investigation of R-410A Air Conditioning System Performance Operating at Extreme Ambient Temperatures up to the Refrigerant Critical Point – ORNL, Rice, 2005 (ARTI-21CR/605-50015-01)
  • Determination of Refrigerant Lower Flammability Limits in Compliance with Proposal Addendum 34p to ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 34 (ASHRAE 1073-RP), Wilson and Richard, 2002. (ARTI-21CR/605-50020-01)
  • Assessment of the Commercial Implications of ASHRAE A3 Flammable Refrigerants Used in Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Systems, Goetzler and Dieckmann, 2001. (ARTI-21CR/610-50025-01)
  • Study of the Effects of Water in Synthetic Lubricant Systems and Clathrate Formation, Rohatgi, 2001. (ARTI-21CR/610-50035-01)
  • Development of a Reproducible Screening Method to Determine the Mechanism and Effect of Organic Acids and other Contaminants on the Corrosion of Aluminum-finned Copper-tube Heat Exchanger Coils, Corbett and Severance, 2005. (ARTI-21CR/611-50055-01)
  • Using Acid Number as a Leading Indicator of Refrigeration and Air Conditioning System Performance, Cartlidge and Schellhase, 2003. (ARTI-21CR/611-50060-01)

MCLR Program Reports

All reports have since been consolidated in electronic format on CD-ROM and is available upon request from the AHRI Director or Research.

Refrigerant Properties Project Reports

  • Thermophysical Properties, Kayser,1993. (DOE/CE/23810-16)
  • Thermophysical Properties of HFC-143a and HFC-152a, Haynes, 1994. (DOE/CE/23810-39)
  • Thermophysical Properties of HCFC Alternatives, Haynes, 1996. (DOE/CE/23810-80)
  • Development of the REFPROP Database and Transport Properties of Refrigerants, McLinden, 1998. (DOE/CE/23810-97)
  • ARTI Refrigerant Database - Primary and Recently-added Citations, Calm, 1999. (DOE/CE/23810-103)
  • ARTI Refrigerant Database - Archival and Historical Citations, Calm, 1999. (DOE/CE/23810-104)
  • ARTI Refrigerant Database Data summaries – Volume I: Single-compound Refrigerants, Calm, 1999. (DOE/CE/23810-105)
  • ARTI Refrigerant Database Data summaries – Volume II: Blends (Zeotropes and Azeotropes), Calm, 1999. (DOE/CE/23810-106)
  • ARTI Refrigerant Database Data summaries – Volume III: Toxicity and Compatibility, Calm, 1999. (DOE/CE/23810-107)
  • Toxicity Data to Determine Refrigerant Concentration Limits, Calm, 2000. (DOE/CE/23810-110)
  • Foaming Characteristics of Refrigerant / Lubricants Mixtures, Goswami, Shah, Jotshi, Bhagwat, Leung, Gregory, and Lu, 1998. (DOE/CE/23810-88)


Chemical Stability Project Reports

  • Chemical and Thermal Stability of Refrigerant-lubricant Mixtures with Metals, Huttenlocher 1992. (DOE/CE/23810-5)
  • Accelerated Screening Methods for Determining Chemical and Thermal Stability of Refrigerant-lubricant Mixtures, Kauffman,1995. (DOE/CE/23810-41) (Volume One), (Volume Two)
  • Accelerated Screening Methods for Determining Chemical and Thermal Stability of Refrigerant-lubricant Mixtures, Part I: Method Assessment; Kauffman, 1993. (DOE/CE/23810-10)


Material Compatibility Project Reports

  • Compatibility of Refrigerants and Lubricants with Motor Materials, Doerr and Kujak, 1993. (DOE/CE/23810-13) (Volume One), (Volume Two), (Volume Three) (Volume Four)
  • Compatibility of Refrigerants and Lubricants with Motor Materials under Retrofit Conditions, Doerr and Waite, 1996. (DOE/CE/23810-63) (Volume One), (Volume Two), (Volume Three), (Volume Four)
  • Compatibility of Refrigerant and Lubricants with Elastomers, Hamed, Seiple,and Taikum, 1994. (DOE/CE/23810-14)
  • Compatibility of Refrigerant and Lubricants with Engineering Plastics, Cavestri, 1993. (DOE/CE/23810-15)
  • Sealed Tube Comparisons of the Compatibility of Desiccants with Refrigerants and Lubricants, Field, 1995. (DOE/CE/23810-54)
  • Compatibility of Manufacturing Process Fluids with R-134a and Polyolester Lubricant, Cavestri and Schooley, 1996. (DOE/CE/23810-55)
  • Compatibility of Lubricant Additives with HFC Refrigerants and Synthetic Lubricants, Part I, Cavestri, 1997. (DOE/CE/23810-76)
  • Documentation of Newly Developed Methods to Assess Material Compatibility in Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Applications, Hawley, 1994. DOE/CE/23810-47
  • Accelerated Test Methods for Predicting the Life of Motor Materials Exposed to Refrigerant-lubricant Mixtures, Ellis II and Ferguson, 2000. (DOE/CE/23810-94)


Energy Efficiency Project Reports

  • Theoretical Evaluation of R22 and R502 Alternatives, Domanski and Didion,1993. (DOE/CE/23810-7)
  • Evaluation of HFC-245ca for Commercial use in Low Pressure Chillers, Keuper, Hamm, and Glamm, 1996. (DOE/CE/23810-67) (Volume One), Volume Two)
  • Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) Enhancement of Pool and in-tube Boiling of Alternate Refrigerants, Ohadi, Dessiatoun, Singh, Fanni, 1993. (DOE/CE/23810-17)
  • Impact of Air and Refrigerant Maldistributions on the Performance of Finned-tube Evaporators with R-22 and R-407C, Lee and Domanski, 1997. (DOE/CE/23810-81)


Lubricant Project Reports

  • Miscibility of Lubricants with Refrigerants, Pate, Zoz, and Berkenbosch, 1993. (DOE/CE/23810-18)
  • Solubility, Viscosity and Density of Refrigerant/lubricant Mixtures, Henderson, 1994. (DOE/CE/23810-34)
  • Measurement of Viscosity, Density, and Gas Solubility of Refrigerant Blends in Selected Synthetic Lubricants, Cavestri, 1995. (DOE/CE/23810-46)
  • Study of Lubricant Circulation in HVAC Systems, Biancardi, Michels, Sienel, and Pandy, 1996. (DOE/CE/23810-71) (Volume One), Volume Two)
  • Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication with Polyolester Lubricants and HFC Refrigerants, Gunsel and Pozebanchuk, 1999. (DOE/CE/23810-102) (Volume One), Volume Two)
  • Accelerated Screening Methods for Predicting Lubricant Performance in Refrigerant Compressors, Cusano, Yoon, and Poppe,1994. (DOE/CE/23810-45)


Refrigerant Flammability Project Reports

  • Methods Development for Measuring and Classifying Flammability/Combustibility of Refrigerants, Task 1: Annotated Bibliography and Summary, Heinonen and Tapscott, 1994. (DOE/CE/23810-42G)
  • Methods Development for Measuring and Classifying Flammability/Combustibility of Refrigerants, Task 2: Test Plan, Heinonen and Tapscott, 1994. (DOE/CE/23810-42H)
  • Methods Development for Measuring and Classifying Flammability/Combustibility of Refrigerants, Task 3: Laboratory Test Results, Heinonen, Tapscott, and Crawford, 1994. (DOE/CE/23810-50)
  • Lean Flammability Limit as a Fundamental Refrigerant Property, Phase I, Womeldorf, King, and Grosshandle, 1995. (DOE/CE/23810-58)
  • Lean Flammability Limit as a Fundamental Refrigerant Property, Phase II, Womeldorf and Grosshandler, 1996. (DOE/CE/23810-68)
  • Lean Flammability Limit as a Fundamental Refrigerant Property, Phase III, Grosshandler, Donnelly, and Womeldorf, 1998. (DOE/CE/23810-98)
  • Investigation into the Fractionation of Refrigerant Blends, Biancardi, Michels, Sienel, and Pandy, 1996. (DOE/CE/23810-75)
  • Refrigerant Flammability Testing in Large Volume Vessels, Flammability Criterion Determination for ASTM E681, Richard, 1998. (DOE/CE/23810-87)
  • Risk Assessment of HFC-32 and HFC-32/134a (30/70 wt%) in Split System Residential Heat Pumps, Goetzler, Bendixen, and Bartholomew, 1998. (DOE/CE/23810-92)


Refrigerant Contaminant Control Project Reports

  • Investigation of Flushing and Clean-out Methods for Refrigeration Equipment to Ensure System Compatibility, Byrne, Shows, and Abel, 1996. (DOE/CE/23810-73)
  • Products of Motor Burnout, Hawley-Fedder, Goerz, Koester, and Wilson, 1996. (DOE/CE/23810-74)
  • Effect of Selected Contaminants in Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Equipment, Cavestri, Falconi, Ruona, and Schooley, 2000. (DOE/CE/23810-111)
  • Effects of Temperature on Desiccant Catalysis of Refrigerant and Lubricant Decompositions, Rohatgi, 1998. (DOE/CE/23810-95)
  • Equilibrium Point Dryness and Water Capacity of Desiccants with Alternative Refrigerants, Cavestri and Schafer, 2000. (DOE/CE/23810-108)
  • Water Solubility and Clathrate Hydrates in HFC Refrigerants and Refrigerant Blends, Cavestri and Schafer, 2000. (DOE/CE/23810-112)
  • Infrared Analysis of Refrigerant Mixtures, Morse, 1998. (DOE/CE/23810-82)
  • Methods Development for Organic Contaminant Determination in Fluorocarbon Refrigerant Azeotropes and Blends, Byrne, Abel, and Gbur, 1998. (DOE/CE/23810-85)
  • Development and Consolidation of Gas Chromatography Methods for Appendix C to ARI 700, Byrne, Gbur, and Gehring, 2000. (DOE/CE/23810-109)